Friday, December 20, 2013

The Mystique of the Great Canadian Flag Debate

The Mystique of the Great Canadian Flag Debate

By Furano Yukihira
The Daily Magi
October 8, 2059

The Great Canadian Flag Debate (or Great Flag Debate) took place in 1963 and 1964 when a new design for the national flag of Canada was chosen. Although the flag debate had been going on for a long time prior, it officially began on June 15, 1964, when Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson proposed his plans for a new flag in the House of Commons. It lasted more than six months, bitterly dividing the people in the process. The debate over the proposed new Canadian flag was ended by closure on December 15, 1964. It resulted in the adoption of the "Maple Leaf flag" as the Canadian national flag. The flag was inaugurated on February 15, 1965 and since 1996, February 15 has been commemorated as Flag Day.

Pearson sought to produce a flag which embodied history and tradition, but he also wanted to excise the Union Jack as a reminder of Canada's heritage and links to the United Kingdom. Hence, the issue was not whether the maple leaf was pre-eminently Canadian, but rather whether the nation should exclude the British-related component from its identity.

The Progressive Conservative government of the time, headed by Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, did not accept the invitation to establish a new Canadian flag, so Pearson made it Liberal Party policy in 1961, and part of the party's election platform in the 1962 and 1963 federal elections. During the election campaign of 1963, Pearson promised that Canada would have a new flag within two years of his election. No previous party leader had ever gone as far as Pearson did, by putting a time limit on finding a new national flag for Canada. The 1963 election brought the Liberals back to power, but with a minority government. In February 1964, a three-leaf design was leaked to the press.

Diefenbaker led the opposition to the Maple Leaf flag, arguing for the retention of the Canadian Red Ensign. Diefenbaker and his lieutenants mounted a filibuster. The seemingly endless debate raged on in Parliament and the press with no side giving quarter. Pearson forced members of Parliament to stay over the summer, but that did not help. Then on September 10, the Prime Minister yielded to the suggestion that the matter be referred to a special flag committee. The key member of the 15-person panel, Liberal MP John Matheson recalled, "…we were asked to produce a flag for Canada and in six weeks!"

On September 10, 1964, a committee of 15 Members of Parliament was appointed. It was made up of seven Liberals, five Conservatives and one each from the New Democratic Party (NDP), the Social Credit Party and the Ralliement créditiste.

The Conservatives at first saw this event as a victory, for they knew that all previous flag committees had suffered miscarriages. During the next six weeks the committee held 35 tormenting meetings. Thousands of suggestions also poured in from a public engaged in what had become a great Canadian debate about identity and how best to represent it.
3,541 entries were submitted: many contained common elements:
  • 2,136 contained maple leaves,
  • 408 contained Union Jacks,
  • 389 contained beavers, and
  • 359 contained Fleurs-de-lys.

At the last minute, Matheson slipped a flag designed by historian George Stanley into the mix. The idea was said to have come to him while standing in front of the Mackenzie Building of the Royal Military College of Canada, while viewing the college flag flying in the wind. The design put forward had a single red maple leaf on a white plain background, flanked by two red borders, based on the design of the flag of the Royal Military College. The voting was held on October 22, 1964, when the committee’s final contest pitted Pearson’s pennant against Stanley’s. Assuming that the Liberals would vote for the Prime Minister’s design, the Conservatives backed Stanley. They were outmanoeuvered by the Liberals who had agreed with others to choose the Stanley Maple Leaf flag. The Liberals voted for the red and white flag, making the selection unanimous (14–0).

The committee had made its decision, but not the House of Commons. Diefenbaker would not budge, so the debate continued for six weeks as the Conservatives launched a filibuster. The debate was prolonged until one of Diefenbaker's own senior members, Léon Balcer, and the Créditiste, Réal Caouette, advised the government to cut off debate by applying closure. Pearson did so, and after some 250 speeches, the final vote adopting the Stanley flag took place at 2:15 on the morning of December 15, with Balcer and the other francophone Conservatives swinging behind the Liberals. The committee's recommendation was accepted 163 to 78. On the afternoon of December 15, the Commons also voted in favour of continued use of the Union Flag as a symbol of Canada's allegiance to the Crown and its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. Senate approval followed on December 17. The "Royal Union Flag", as it would be officially termed, would be put alongside the new flag on days of Commonwealth significance.

Queen Elizabeth II approved the Maple Leaf flag by signing a Royal Proclamation on January 28, 1965, when both Prime Minister Pearson and Leader of the Opposition Diefenbaker were in London attending the funeral of Sir Winston Churchill. The flag was inaugurated on February 15, 1965, at an official ceremony held on Parliament Hill in Ottawa in the presence of Governor General Major-General Georges Vanier, the prime minister, the members of the Cabinet, and Canadian parliamentarians. Also throughout Canada, at the United Nations in New York City, and at Canadian legations and on Canadian ships throughout the world, the Canadian Red Ensign was lowered and the Maple Leaf flag was raised. As journalist George Bain wrote of the occasion, the flag "looked bold and clean, and distinctively our own." 

Attachment to the old Canadian Red has persisted among many people, especially veterans. In 1967, the Canadian Government first used the Canadian Coat of Arms (whose shield was used on the Red Ensign) on a red flag for the nation's centennial celebrations. It was designed to appeal to those who were used to the Red Ensign and had not yet become accustomed to the Maple Leaf Flag. The Canadian Red Ensign itself can sometimes be seen today in Canada, often in connection to veterans' associations.

In addition, the provinces of Manitoba and Ontario adopted their own versions of the Red Ensign as their respective provincial flags in the wake of the national flag debate. On the other hand, Newfoundland used the Union Flag as its provincial flag from 1952 until 1980; the blue triangles on the new flag adopted in 1980 are meant as a tribute to the Union Flag. British Columbia's flag, which features the Union Flag in its top portion, was introduced in 1960 and is actually based on the shield of the provincial coat of arms, which dates back to 1906. Hence, both Newfoundland's use of the Union Flag and the adoption of BC's flag are unrelated to (and, in fact, pre-date) the great flag debate. Since 1995, February 15 has been commemorated as National Flag of Canada Day in Canada.

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